The Influence of the Framing Effect Paradigm Upon Perspectives of Individuals on COVID-19 Vaccinations

  • Ekamjot K. Cheema Kwantlen Polytechnic University
  • Yasmin Hussein Kwantlen Polytechnic University
  • Karan Malli Kwantlen Polytechnic University
  • Jasjeet Thiara Kwantlen Polytechnic University
Keywords: framing effect, reactance, emotion, attitude, vaccination intention, COVID-19 vaccination


The COVID-19 pandemic, and the encouragement of people to get vaccinated, has been received with mixed opinions. This study was conducted to assess if a positively framed passage, compared to a negatively framed passage, would increase one's perspective in support of COVID-19 vaccinations. This between-groups experimental design, in which one group received a positively framed passage and one received a negatively framed passage, was conducted online anonymously through Qualtrics. After reading the passage, participants answered a 17-item survey on a 5-point Likert-scale that was categorized into four subscales. The results of a series of independent samples t-tests showed a statistically significant difference for only the attitude subscale as the score of the positive frame condition was higher (M = 4.34) than the negative frame condition (M = 4.07). The higher score indicates a positive attitude towards COVID-19 vaccinations and the small effect size suggests a minor influence of the framing effect upon attitudes of post-secondary individuals in regard to COVID-19 vaccinations (r2 = .07). However, no major differences were found for the remaining three subscales: reactance, emotions, and vaccination intentions.

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